|Relationship to me:||Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Great Grandfather||Gen -21||
|Born:||13 Nov 1312|
|Died:||21 Jun 1377|
|Father:||King Edward II||1284 - 1327|
|Mother:||Isabella of France|
|Married:||Philippa daughter of Count William of Hainault, Holland|
|Children:||John of Gaunt||1340 -1399|
See "The Perfect King" - biography of Edward III by Ian Mortimer
published 2006 by Jonathan Cape
See also http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon32.html for further information on King Edward III.
According to information passed on to me by Ian Caldwell, in Dec 2001: "Edward III ruled 25th January 1327-21st June 1377, Crowned Westminster Abbey 1st February 1327. Titles, King of England, Duke of Aquitaine (from 1325), earl of Chester (from 1312), Count of Ponthieu and Montreuil (from 13250, Lord of Ireland, King of France (from 1340).
Born Windsor Castle 13/11/1312, son of Edward II and Isabella
of France; died Sheen Palace, Surrey, 21 June 1377 aged 64, buried Westminster
Married 24th January 1328 at York Minster, Philippa (1311-69), daughter of William V, count of Hainault and Holland: 13 children, as well as at least 3 illegitimate children by his mistress, Alice Perrers (c.1348-1400).
He was made king on the forced abdication of his father at the age of 14 and under the control of his mother, Isabella of France, and Roger Mortimer, her lover. In the summer of 1327 he led an army into Scotland because of the attacks made by the Scots on the borders. He spent a month trying to track down the enemy but failed to find them and returned to York. Negotiations were opened with the Scots, leading to the Treaty of Northampton in May 1328, which recognised Scotland's independence. Edward's sister, Joan, was betrothed to Robert the Bruce¹s infant son, David (II), and they were married that July at Berwick on Tweed, Edward himself had married Philippa that January.
Isabella and Mortimer were growing increasingly unpopular, especially as Mortimer was continuing to see out retribution against supporters of Edward II, and he and Isabella were living openly together. In March 1330 Mortimer had Edmund, earl of Kent and uncle of the young King, executed. Young Edward had had enough and, with the support of Henry of Lancaster, Edward's men seized Mortimer at Nottingham Castle, dragging him from Isabella¹s embrace. He was tried and convicted, then hung, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, the first person to be executed there. Now, at the age of 18 Edward took over control and had his mother confined to a castle.
Edward was tall and handsome with golden red hair and penetrating eyes, a flamboyant, affable and generous man. He excelled in all the knightly arts, loved hunting and falconry and was astute at choosing advisors who proved loyal to him. He never had to deal with a rebellion and was loved by his people whom he ruled for 50 years and who thought him immortal. His wife, Philippa was a tallish, comely woman to whom Edward was devoted.
In 1337 Edward began the 100 years war with France in pursuit of his claim to the French throne. At first he played a major role himself, but later handed over control to his son, the Black Prince, who had won his spurs at the Battle of Crecy in 1346. The victor of Poitiers in 1356, he became the most feared military commander in Europe, but while fighting in Spain he caught a debilitating infection and died in 1376, one year before his father.
At home in 1352 the Statue of Treason laid down a definition of high treason. Later new laws made it illegal to raise taxes without the consent of Parliament, who were also given the right to enquire into public abuses. The high cost of the war forced Edward to appeal to his nobles for funds, and the Black Death killed about 800,000 of his subjects between 1348-49. In 1362 English became the official language used by Parliament and the Courts.
After the death of his wife in 1369 Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, "that wanton baggage", was in the habit of sleeping with the senile though lecherous King and it seems highly probable that one or the other of them infected him with gonorrhoea. She was also scheming and grasping and made his final years miserable and led to her banishment by him in 1376. His final year was spent in much loneliness and sadness, aware that the administration about him was crumbling and he died of a stroke at Sheen palace in June 1377, to be succeeded by his grandson, Richard II".